Introduction
Agriculture and Rural Development
Demographic Profile
Education
Employment and Unemployment
Energy
Environmental Concerns
Health
Industrial Development
Plan Outlays
Price Trends
Public Distribution System
Public Finance
Social Welfare
State Income
Trade and Commerce
Transport
Urban Development
Water Supply and Sanitation
Welfare of SC ST OBC
Urban Development

 
 
(March 2000)
 
CHAPTER 14
 
URBAN DEVELOPMENT
 
1. The National Commission on Urbanisation has described urbanisation in India as a process whereby the surplus population of workers from rural areas resettles in urban centres where non-agricultural job opportunities are available. If job opportunities are productive and lead to gainful employment, urbanisation becomes a catalyst for economic development. If, however, urbanisation is merely a process of transfer of rural poverty to an urban environment, it results in a concentration of misery.
 
2. Describing civic conditions in urban areas, the Commission pointed out that the urban centres in the country generated the most brutal and inhuman living conditions, with large sections of the population (nearly 30-50% in the case of Mumbai and Delhi) living in squatter settlements. Overcrowding and the scarcity of water and sanitation in the slums leads to severe health problems and the abject degradation of human life. The Commission estimated that there would be 350 million people living in urban areas in India by 2001 compared to 160 million in 1981.
 
3. Urbanisation, according to the Commission, has been accelerated by distress migration from rural areas. In 1951 the contribution of urban India to Net State Domestic Product was 29% which grew to 37% in 1971 and is projected to reach 60% by 2001. Thus, the Commission estimates that 35% of the population of the country living in urban areas will contribute over 60% of the country’s Net State Domestic Product by 2001.
 
URBANIZATION OF DELHI
 
4. Urbanization has increased rapidly in Delhi since 1911 when Delhi became the capital of the country. The pace was accelerated during 1941-51 when the country was partitioned and refugees started settling in Delhi. 90% of the population was living in urban area by 1991, compared to 57.5% in 1911. (Table 14.3)
 
5. With rapid urbanisation, the rural area is shrinking: it has fallen from 1157.52 sq. km in 1961 to 782.77 sq. km in 1991. The population density was 12361 persons per sq. km in urban areas in 1991 and 1190 persons per sq. km in rural areas.
 
6. Rapid urbanisation has led to one distinctive feature in Delhi — different types of settlements. The types of settlements in Delhi are categorised in terms of civic infrastructure, types of houses, authorised versus unauthorised settlements, etc. The types of settlements are listed below: -
 
  i) JJ resettlement colonies
  ii) Slum resettlement colonies
  iii) Refugee resettlement colonies
  iv) Approved/planned colonies
  v) Unauthorised-regularised colonies
  vi) Unauthorised colonies
  vii) Urbanised villages
  viii) JJ clusters
  ix) Notified slum areas / Walled City
  x) Rural villages
 
7. In colonies of Delhi, the occupational pattern as well as the standard of living varies by type of habitat. About 79.48% of the households had electricity connections and 63.38% of the households had toilet facilities according to the 1991 Census. About 60% of the households had both electricity and toilet facilities (Table 14.1); 75.7% of the total households had piped water supply (individual plus sharing) while 20% of the households depended on hand-pumps/tube-wells; 46.5% of the households used LPG as domestic fuel while 42% of the households used kerosene as fuel (Table 14.2).
 
Master Plans for Delhi
 
8. The First Master Plan for Delhi, 1961-81, was published by DDA in 1962. The Second Master Plan for Delhi 1981-2001, was published by DDA in 1990. As per the First master Plan, 11.7% of the total area of Delhi (17287.45 hectares)was urbanized in 1958-59, holding an urban population of 20 lakhs. The First master plan envisaged development of urbanisable area of 44,777 hectares by 1981, catering to an urban population of 46 lakhs. This was subsequently increased to 48,777 hectares – 4000 hectares were added for development of Patparganj, Sarita Vihar & Vasant Kunj. The Second Master Plan envisaged acquisition of 20,000 hectares. for planned development by 2001, thereby expanding the urbanisable area to 68,777 hectares. On the other hand, NCR Planning board projected an urbanisable area of 62,777 hectares by 2001. Remote sensing data available with the National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) indicates that the built up area in Delhi was 57,880 hectares in 1986, 60,340 hectares in 1993 and 75,000 hectares in 1999 (includes built up area of rural settlements). More than 50% of the total area of Delhi has been built up by 1999.
 
Regional Plan
 
9. The National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) was constituted in 1985 under the National Capital Region Planning Board Act, 1985. The National Capital Region covers an area of 30,242 sq. kms. including Delhi (1483 sq. kms), and parts of Haryana (13,413 sq.kms), Uttar Pradesh (10,853 sq.kms) and Rajasthan (4493 sq.km.). The Regional Plan – 2001 prepared by NCRPB had projected a population of 11.2 million for Delhi by 2001, on the assumption that about 2 million people would be deflected to other towns in the
 
CHAPTER 14
 
URBAN DEVELOPMENT
 
1. The National Commission on Urbanisation has described urbanisation in India as a process whereby the surplus population of workers from rural areas resettles in urban centres where non-agricultural job opportunities are available. If job opportunities are productive and lead to gainful employment, urbanisation becomes a catalyst for economic development. If, however, urbanisation is merely a process of transfer of rural poverty to an urban environment, it results in a concentration of misery.
 
2. Describing civic conditions in urban areas, the Commission pointed out that the urban centres in the country generated the most brutal and inhuman living conditions, with large sections of the population (nearly 30-50% in the case of Mumbai and Delhi) living in squatter settlements. Overcrowding and the scarcity of water and sanitation in the slums leads to severe health problems and the abject degradation of human life. The Commission estimated that there would be 350 million people living in urban areas in India by 2001 compared to 160 million in 1981.
 
3. Urbanisation, according to the Commission, has been accelerated by distress migration from rural areas. In 1951 the contribution of urban India to Net State Domestic Product was 29% which grew to 37% in 1971 and is projected to reach 60% by 2001. Thus, the Commission estimates that 35% of the population of the country living in urban areas will contribute over 60% of the country’s Net State Domestic Product by 2001.
 
URBANIZATION OF DELHI
 
4. Urbanization has increased rapidly in Delhi since 1911 when Delhi became the capital of the country. The pace was accelerated during 1941-51 when the country was partitioned and refugees started settling in Delhi. 90% of the population was living in urban area by 1991, compared to 57.5% in 1911. (Table 14.3)
 
5. With rapid urbanisation, the rural area is shrinking: it has fallen from 1157.52 sq. km in 1961 to 782.77 sq. km in 1991. The population density was 12361 persons per sq. km in urban areas in 1991 and 1190 persons per sq. km in rural areas.
 
6. Rapid urbanisation has led to one distinctive feature in Delhi — different types of settlements. The types of settlements in Delhi are categorised in terms of civic infrastructure, types of houses, authorised versus unauthorised settlements, etc. The types of settlements are listed below: -
 
 
i) JJ resettlement colonies
ii) Slum resettlement colonies
iii) Refugee resettlement colonies
iv) Approved/planned colonies
v) Unauthorised-regularised colonies
vi) Unauthorised colonies
vii) Urbanised villages
viii) JJ clusters
ix) Notified slum areas / Walled City
x) Rural villages
 
7. In colonies of Delhi, the occupational pattern as well as the standard of living varies by type of habitat. About 79.48% of the households had electricity connections and 63.38% of the households had toilet facilities according to the 1991 Census. About 60% of the households had both electricity and toilet facilities (Table 14.1); 75.7% of the total households had piped water supply (individual plus sharing) while 20% of the households depended on hand-pumps/tube-wells; 46.5% of the households used LPG as domestic fuel while 42% of the households used kerosene as fuel (Table 14.2).
 
Master Plans for Delhi
 
8. The First Master Plan for Delhi, 1961-81, was published by DDA in 1962. The Second Master Plan for Delhi 1981-2001, was published by DDA in 1990. As per the First master Plan, 11.7% of the total area of Delhi (17287.45 hectares)was urbanized in 1958-59, holding an urban population of 20 lakhs. The First master plan envisaged development of urbanisable area of 44,777 hectares by 1981, catering to an urban population of 46 lakhs. This was subsequently increased to 48,777 hectares – 4000 hectares were added for development of Patparganj, Sarita Vihar & Vasant Kunj. The Second Master Plan envisaged acquisition of 20,000 hectares. for planned development by 2001, thereby expanding the urbanisable area to 68,777 hectares. On the other hand, NCR Planning board projected an urbanisable area of 62,777 hectares by 2001. Remote sensing data available with the National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) indicates that the built up area in Delhi was 57,880 hectares in 1986, 60,340 hectares in 1993 and 75,000 hectares in 1999 (includes built up area of rural settlements). More than 50% of the total area of Delhi has been built up by 1999.
 
Regional Plan
 
9. The National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) was constituted in 1985 under the National Capital Region Planning Board Act, 1985. The National Capital Region covers an area of 30,242 sq. kms. including Delhi (1483 sq. kms), and parts of Haryana (13,413 sq.kms), Uttar Pradesh (10,853 sq.kms) and Rajasthan (4493 sq.km.). The Regional Plan – 2001 prepared by NCRPB had projected a population of 11.2 million for Delhi by 2001, on the assumption that about 2 million people would be deflected to other towns in the National Capital Region. A Committee appointed to review the Regional Plan 2001 has concluded that the Regional Plan was not implemented effectively due to lack of priorities and lack of time-bound programmes. As per projections made by the Registrar General of India, the population of Delhi is expected to be about 14 million by 2000, compared to the figure of 11.2 million envisaged in the Regional Plan 2001.
 
Housing
 
10. According to the 1991 Census there were 18.62 lakh households in Delhi. Out of these, 12,200 households were shelterless. There were 18.02 lakh residential houses, which included 1,91,386 kaccha houses. Delhi faced a shortage of 2,62,824 houses in 1991, which is about 14% of the total number of households. Information on the availability of houses in urban and rural areas is indicated below
 
Statement 14.1
 
HOUSEHOLDS, HOUSES AND HOUSING SHORTAGE IN DELHI-1991 CENSUS
 
ITEM URBAN RURAL TOTAL
No. of households 1,697,609 163,967 1,861,576*
No. of residential houses 1,640,763 161,575 1,802,338
No. of shelterless households 12,200 12,200
No. of kutcha houses 178,110 13,276 191,386
Housing Shortage 247,156 15,668 262,824
Housing Shortage (%) 14.56 9.56 14.12
 
Including Industrial Households
 
Source : Population Statistics - 1991, Dte. of Economics & Statistics, Government of NCT of Delhi
 
11. The Master Plan for Delhi, 2001 (MPD -2001), suggested that 16.16 lakh new dwelling units be made available in Delhi during 1981-2001 under different programmes (Table 14.3).
 
Jhuggi Jhonpri Clusters
 
12. Rapid in-migration has resulted in mushrooming of JJ clusters in Delhi. Efforts to relocate households in JJ clusters have not succeeded, with only about 17000 sites and services plots having been developed since 1990. The target for 2000-01 is 30,000 plots. Growth of Jhuggies in Delhi is indicated in Table 14.4. Delhi had an estimated 1080 JJ Clusters in 1994 (Table 14.4). The Delhi Government has recently announced the setting up of a low cost Housing Corporation to tackle this problem
 
 
Table 14.1
 
FACILITIES AVAILABLE TO HOUSEHOLDS - 1991 Census
 
Facilities Available Total No. of   House holds* Rural Households Urban Households
Electricity 1479620
(79.48)
98129
(5.27)
1381491
(74.21)
Toilet 1179797 
(63.38)
626
(0.03)
1179171
(63.35)
Both Electricity & Toilet 1114424 
(59.86)
31511
(1.69)
1082913
(58.17)
Electricity but no toilet 365196 
(19.62)
66618
(3.58)
298578
(16.04)
Toilet but no electricity 65373 
(3.51)
17027
(0.91)
48346
(2.60)
No electricity or toilet 316583 
(17.01)
48811
(2.63)
267772
(14.38)
 
*Including institutional households.
Note: 1. The total number of households including industrial households is 18,61,576.
         2. Figures in parentheses show percentage of total
Source: Population Statistics - 1991, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Government of NCT of Delhi.
 
Table 14.2
FUEL USED FOR COOKING - 1991 CENSUS
 
Type of Fuel Number of Households
  Total Rural Urban
Cooking gas 865072
(46.47)
29439
(1.58)
835633
(44.89)
Kerosene 774348
(41.60)
64648
(3.47)
709700
(38.13)
Cowdung cakes 88680
(4.76)
39490
(2.12)
49190
(2.64)
Wood 86861
(4.67)
26238
(1.41)
60623
(3.26)
Coal/coke/lignite 15903
(0.86)
869
(0.05)
15034
(0.81)
Bio-gas 11913
(0.64)
725
(0.04)
11188
(0.60)
Charcoal 8763
(0.47)
1640
(0.09)
7123
  (0.38)
Electricity 2346
(0.14)
216
(0.01)
2130
(0.13)
Other 7269
(0.39)
677
(0.04)
6592
(0.35)
All Sources 1861576
(100.00)
163967
(8.81)
1697609
(91.19)
 
 
Figure in brackets show percentage
Source: Population Statistics - 1991, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Government of NCT of Delhi.
 
Table 14.3
 
Housing Requirement as per Maser Plan of Delhi - 2001
 
Type of new Housing Unit Target, 1981-2001(in lakhs)
Sites and Services No. of Sites 4.00 lakhs
Partially/fully built agency housing Dwelling Units
Partially/fully built cooperative housing Dwelling Units 6.97 lakhs
Slum Housing Dwelling Units 0.49 lakh 
Employer Housing Dwelling Units 0.65 lakh 
Housin on individual Plots Dwelling Units 2.75 lakhs
Unauthorised in-fill Dwelling Units 1.30 lakhs
Total   16.16 lakhs
 
Source : Master Plan of Delhi - 2001, Delhi Development Authority.
 
Table 14.4
 
GROWTH OF JHUGGIS IN DELHI
 
Sl.No. Year No. of Jhuggis In Delhi
1. 1951 12749
2. 1956 22415
3. 1961 42815
4. 1966 42668
5. 1971 62594
6. 1973 98483
7. 1977 20000
8. 1981 98709
9. 1983 113386
10. 1985 150000
11. 1986 200000
12. 1987 225000
13. 1990 259344
14. 1994 480929
 
Source : Slum Wing, MCD.
 
 
 
 
 
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