Introduction
Agriculture and Rural Development
Demographic Profile
Education
Employment and Unemployment
Energy
Environmental Concerns
Health
Industrial Development
Plan Outlays
Price Trends
Public Distribution System
Public Finance
Social Welfare
State Income
Trade and Commerce
Transport
Urban Development
Water Supply and Sanitation
Welfare of SC ST OBC
Transport

(March 2000)

CHAPTER 12

TRANSPORT

1. The phenomenal population growth in Delhi has been accompanied by an equally rapid increase in vehicle population. Delhi had 32.10 lakh motor vehicles in March, 1999 for a projected population of about 13.4 million. The number of vehicles per 1000 population increased from 192 in 1991 to 239 in March, 1999 (Table 12.1 & 12.2). Each household in Delhi had an average 1.19 vehicles in March, 1999. Delhi now has more vehicles than Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta combined. The distribution of motor vehicles in Delhi (Table 12.3) indicates that the proportion of cars & jeeps has increased from 22% in 1990-91 to 25.5% in 1998-99, while the proportion of motor cycles & scooters, auto rickshaws and goods vehicles has declined. However the annual growth of motor vehicles has shown a declining trend since 1997-98 (Table-12.4).



National Highways

2. Five National Highways i.e. NH1, NH2, NH10, NH8 and NH24 pass through the National Capital Territory of Delhi, contributing significantly to the character of Delhi as a major trading and distribution center, as an entrepot and as the melting pot of India. Delhi continues to stand at the cross roads of modern India, with the Grand Trunk Road built by Sher Shah Suri from Karnal to Calcutta having been the precursor of NH-1 and NH-24.



Rail Network

3. Delhi is a major junction on the rail map of India linked with almost all Metropolitan cities directly. There are four major railway stations at New Delhi, Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin and Sarai Rohilla besides a Container Depot at Tuglakabad. There are 8 rail corridors in the National Capital Territory which bring in more than 350 passenger trains and 40 goods trains each day.



Modes of Transport

4.

Delhi is predominantly dependent on road transport, with the railways catering to only about 1% of the local traffic. The ring rail network in Delhi is grossly underutilized. Buses cater to 62% of the total traffic while personal vehicles account for the balance 37%. Although, buses constitute only 1.1% of the total number of vehicles, they cater to 62% of the total traffic load. Among personalized vehicles, motor cycles and scooters comprise about two third of the total number of vehicles in Delhi, while cars and jeeps account for one fourth of the total vehicles. (Table 12.3)

5.

Complete data about man and animal-driven vehicles in Delhi is not available. The unauthorized number of such vehicles is estimated to be more than those registered with the local bodies. Registered man and animal-driven vehicles constitute about 3.5% of the total vehicle population in Delhi out of which about 51% are cycle rickshaws (Table 12.5).

Road Network

6.

The road network in Delhi is being developed and maintained by PWD, MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board and DDA. The road network in Delhi was 25949 kms (including 337 kms of NHs) in March 1997. The growth of the road network in Delhi is shown in Table 12.6. Road length per 100 sq.kms, per 1000 population and per 1000 vehicles is given in Table No.12.7.

7.

Delhi had 1749 km of road length per 100 sq. km area in 1996-97 compared to the national average of 73 km per 100 sq. km area (1995-96). The road network has increased from 8380 km in 1971-72 to 25949 km in 1996-97, (three times), while the number of vehicles has increased from 2.14 lakh in 1971-72 to 28.48 lakh in 1996-97 (thirteen times). The consequences in terms of heavy traffic congestion and reduced vehicle speed are self evident, as indicated below:-



Ring Road

8. The Ring road, Outer Ring road and the radial roads constitute a distinct feature of the road network in Delhi. Ring road has a length of 48 km, out of which 16 km is common with Outer Ring road and NH-1. The 6-lane carriage way of the existing Ring Road had reached the saturation capacity of 75,000 PCUs per day in 1994. Traffic is projected to reach between 1.5- 4 lakh PCUs by 2011, which will require expansion of the Ring Road to 18-24 lanes (Source: NCRPB).

Major Projects

Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS)

9. The Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) is an ambitious project that aims at providing a non-polluting and efficient rail-based transport system, properly integrated with road transport. The first phase of the project, originally estimated to cost Rs. 4,860 crore (April 1996 prices) was approved in September, 1996. The project cost has been revised to Rs. 6251 crores at August, 1998 prices. Of the total cost, 56% is to be funded by Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF) of Japan, 30% is to be funded through equity support (15% each to be contributed by Government of Delhi and Central Government ), 8% is to be funded through interest free subordinate debt (4% each to be contributed by Government of Delhi and the Central Government) and 6% is to be funded through property development. Government of NCT of Delhi has already contributed Rs. 308 crores as share capital upto December 1999 and Rs. 202 crores as subordinate debt for land acquisition. The first phase envisages the following three corridors:-

1. Delhi University Central Sectt. (Metro/Underground Corridor) 11 Km
2. Shahdara Tis Hazari Nagloi (Rail/surface/elevated Corridor) 25 Km
3. Subzi Mandi Holambi Kalan (Rail/surface/elevated Corridor) 19.3 Km
Total 55.3 Km


10. Project work commenced on 2nd October, 1998. Work on the Shahdara Tis Hazari section (8.3 Km) is in full swing and is scheduled to be completed by March, 2002

Integrated Freight Complexes

11. MPD-2001 envisaged the construction of 4 integrated freight complexes in Delhi at Madanpur Khadar (NH-2), Patparganj (NH-24), G.T. Road (NH-1) and Bhartal (NH-8). These 4 integrated freight complexes will consist of wholesale markets, warehousing, road (truck) and rail transport terminals so as to curtail the movement of heavy vehicles within the urban area. The freight complexes are conceived to shift wholesale trade, decongest the walled city and also cater to regional goods traffic flowing through Delhi. The project design and financing pattern is under consideration of DDA.

Peripheral Expressway

12. Delhi has emerged as major wholesale trade center for North India. It is estimated that 78% of vegetables and fruits, 49% of fuel, 44% of iron and steel and 47% of food grains traded in Delhi are destined for other States. The five national highways also bring interstate goods vehicles into the territory. This situation aggravates the traffic congestion, particularly on RING Road and other major roads of the city. As a solution to this problem, a peripheral expressway (94 km length) is proposed to be constructed along the western boundary of Delhi and through parts of Haryana. The tentative estimated cost is Rs. 2500 crores, which includes Rs. 500 crores for land acquisition. The project is at the concept stage and the feasibility of taking up the project on BOT basis is under examination. The development of the Peripheral expressway is linked with the development of integrated freight complexes.

Interstate Bus Terminals (ISBTs)

13. MPD-2001 suggested five ISBTs in Delhi by 2001. With the development of two new ISBTs at Sarai Kale Khan and Anand Vihar and the existing ISBT at Kashmere Gate, three ISBTs are functioning at present. These three ISBTs care to an average 1.54 lakh passengers and 3300 buses/trips per day. Two more ISBTs are proposed to be constructed during the 9th Five Year Plan at Dwarka and in North Delhi.

Flyovers and Bridges

14. A special programme for construction of 15 flyovers on Ring Road and outer Ring Road was started in 1998-99. Construction work on flyovers at Punjabi Bagh and Raja Garden, started prior to 1998-99, is in full swing. Construction of two major flyovers at Dhaula Kuan (Rs. 100 crores) and Safdarjung Crossing (Rs. 67.07 crores) is expected to begin shortly. Another 20 flyover projects are in the pipeline.

Delhi Transport Corporation

15. DTC was taken over by Govt. of N.C.T. of Delhi from Govt. of India in August, 1996. The DTC fleet comprised 3131 buses in 1998-99, which has increased marginally to 3200 buses in 1999-2000. A major fleet expansion is planned in 2000-01, with the number of buses projected to increase to 4600. DTC has also engaged 2623 buses of private operators under the kilometer scheme in 1999-2000. 87-90 percent of the DTC buses have been on road in the last two years, compared to a low of 53.7% in 1995-96. Fleet utilization has increased significantly since 1995-96.

16. About 57% of DTC buses are overage (exceeding eight years), out of which about 24% are more than 10 years old.

17. The DTC fleet comprised 8.9% of the total number of buses registered in Delhi in 1998-99.

Table 12.1

MOTOR VEHICLE POPULATION IN DELHI

(in Numbers)

Vehicle 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Cars & Jeeps 398479 440166 477783 522264 575762 633802 705923 765470 818962
Motor Cycles
& Scooters
1220640 1317180 1403050 1492201 1617732 1741260 1876053 1991710 2101876
Auto
Rickshaws
63005 67128 70459 72102 74981 79011 80210 80210 86985
Taxies 10157 10694 11365 11846 12547 13765 15015 16654 17136
Buses 18858 20201 23221 24211 26202 27889 29572 32333 35254
Goods Vehicles 101828 107629 111277 116379 125071 133918 140922 146668 150243
Total 1812967 1962998 2097155 2239003 2432295 2629645 2847695 3033045 3210456


Source : Transport Department, Government of NCT of Delhi.

Table 12.2

GROWTH RATE OF MOTOR VEHICLES IN DELHI

Items 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of Vehicles 1812967 1962998 2097155 2239003 2432295 2629645 2847695 3033045 3210456
Increase in number of Vehicles 175365 150031 134157 141848 193292 197350 218050 185350 177411
Annual Growth (%) 10.71 8.28 6.83 6.76 8.63 8.11 8.29 6.51 5.85
Number of Vehicles
per 1,000 Population
192 199 204 208 217 224 232 236 239
Source : Transport Department, Government of NCT of Delhi.


Table 12.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES IN DELHI

Type of Vehicle 1990-91 1999-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Cars & Jeeps 21.98 22.42 22.78 23.32 23.67 24.10 24.79 25.24 25.51
Motor Cycles & Scooters 67.32 67.11 66.90 66.65 66.51 66.23 65.88 65.67 65.47
Auto Rickshaws 3.48 3.42 3.36 3.22 3.08 3.00 2.81 2.64 2.71
Taxies 0.56 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.53 0.55 0.53
Buses 1.04 1.03 1.11 1.08 1.08 1.06 1.04 1.07 1.10
Goods Vehicles 5.62 5.48 5.31 5.20 5.14 5.09 4.95 4.83 4.68
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Source : Transport Department, Government of NCT of Delhi.


Table 12.4

ANNUAL GROWTH RATE OF MOTOR VEHICLES

Type of Vehicle 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Cars & Jeeps 15.45 10.46 8.55 9.30 10.24 10.08 11.38 8.44 6.98
Motor Cycles & Scooters 9.65 7.90 6.52 6.35 8.41 7.64 7.74 6.16 5.53
Auto Rickshaws 6.90 6.54 4.96 2.33 3.99 5.37 1.52 0.00 8.45
Taxies 5.22 5.29 6.27 4.23 5.92 9.71 9.08 10.92 2.89
Buses 5.68 7.12 14.95 4.26 8.22 6.44 6.03 9.34 9.03
Goods Vehicles 9.75 5.70 3.39 4.58 7.47 7.07 5.23 4.08 2.44
Total 10.71 8.28 6.83 6.76 8.63 8.11 8.29 6.51 5.85


Table 12.5

MAN/ANIMAL DRIVEN VEHICLES IN DELHI


1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97
1 2 3 4 5
Rickshaws 45963 45899 46386 55269
Tangas 867 796 679 613
Rehras 190 205 131 144
Hand Carts 4998 5518 5515 5448
Bullock Carts 442 423 426 430
Cycle, Rickshaws, Trollies 35576 38925 42339 40666
Total 88036 91766 95476 102570
Source : Delhi Statistical Hand Book - 1998, Dte. of Eco. & Stat., Government of NCT of Delhi.


Table 12.6

AVAILABILITY OF ROADS IN DELHI

Agency 1980-81 1990-91 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
MCD 12129 18673 21452 21467 22769 22769
NDMC 1191 1289 1295 1297 1298 1299
DCB 124 143 144 144 144 144
PWD
i) National Highway 302 324 337 337 337 337
ii) Other Road 570 1135 1400 1400 1400 1400
Total 14316 21564 24628 24645 25948 25949
Source: Delhi Statistical Hand Book - 1998 / Statistical Abstract 1977-96, Dte. of Eco. & Stat., Government of NCT of Delhi.


Table 12.7

DELHI ROADS BY AREA & POPULATION

Item 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97
1 2 3 4 5
Total length of road 24628 24645 25948 25949
Average Length of road per 100 sq. Km. 1661 1662 1749 1749
Road length per 1000 population 2.35 2.27 2.21 2.15
Road length per 1000 vehicles. 10.99 10.13 9.87 9.11
Source : Delhi Statistical Hand Book - 1998, Dte. of Eco. & Stat., Government of NCT of Delhi.
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