Introduction
Agriculture and Rural Development
Demographic Profile
Education
Employment and Unemployment
Energy
Environmental Concerns
Health
Industrial Development
Plan Outlays
Price Trends
Public Distribution System
Public Finance
Social Welfare
State Income
Trade and Commerce
Transport
Urban Development
Water Supply and Sanitation
Welfare of SC ST OBC
Employment and Unemployment



CHAPTER 5
EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT

EMPLOYMENT

1.

Between 1981 and 1991 the population of Delhi increased rapidly but the proportion of workers in Delhi’s population declined marginally. Workers constituted 32.19% of Delhi’s population in 1981 which declined to 31.63% in 1991. In contrast, the percentage of workers in the total population increased from 35.70% in 1981 to 37.46% in 1991 at the National level. The state-wise population and workers according to the 1981 and 1991 census are indicated in table 5.1 and summarized below.


Statement 5.1
Growth of Workforce, 1981-1991 census

(Fig. in lakhs)

Census
Year
Total population Total number
of Workers
% of work-force
in population
% increase in work-force
in 1981-1991

India Delhi India Delhi India Delhi India Delhi
1981 6851.85 62.20 2446.04 20.02 35.70 32.19 - -
1991 8385.86 94.21 3141.31 29.80 37.46 31.63 28.42 48.85

2.

The rate of increase of the Delhi workforce during 1981-91 was 48.85% compared to only 28.42% at the National level. The increase in Delhi was primarily due to migration of unemployed people from neighbouring states. A study by the Planning Department in 1998 revealed that about 42% of the persons registered with employment exchanges in Delhi came from neighboring states.

3. Occupational Structure

The shift in the occupational structure since 1951 is indicated below:


Statement 5.2
No. of Main Workers as per
Population Census- Delhi

S.N. Sector 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991
1. Primary 43130
(7.68)
71449
(8.36)
60856
(4.95)
75731
(3.81)
84557
(2.85)
2. Secondary 95137
(16.94)
222394
(26.03)
356723
(29.04)
692614
(34.87)
962522
(32.43)
3. Tertiary 423471
(75.38)
560608
(65.61)
810818
(66.01)
1218054
(61.32)
1921298
(64.72)
4. Total*
Workers
561738 (100.00) 854451
(100.00)
1228397
(100.00)
1986399 (100.00) 2968377 (100.00)
5. Total population 1744072 2658612 4065698 6220406 9420644
6. %age of workers
to total population
32.21 32.14 30.21 31.93 31.51

Note: Fig. in bracket are percentage to total workers.
* : Excluding marginal workers
Source:
Census data (Ref. table 5.2 for 1981 & 1991 Census)


4. dis-aggregated picture regarding secondary and tertiary sector is indicated in charts 5.2 and 5.3.



NSSO EMPLOYMENT SURVEYS

5. The results of the NSSO 1977-78 Employment and Unemployment Survey (both central and state sample) show that of the estimated population of 54.10 lakh in Delhi, 17 lakh (31.42%) were employed. The employment figure increased to 21.18 lakh in 1983, 27.38 lakh in 1987- 88 and 32.61 lakh in 1992 as can be seen below :


Statement 5.3

Employment as per NSSO rounds

(Fig.in lakhs)


32nd Round
(July 1977-
June 1978)
38th Round
(Jan-Dec. 1983)
43rd Round (July 1987-
June 1988)
48th Round (Jan-Dec.
1992)
Estimated population 54.10 68.39 81.86 98.71
Persons employed 17.00 21.18 27.38 32.61
Percentage of employed persons in total population 31.42% 30.97% 33.45% 33.03%


BOX 5.1



National Sample Survey Organisation



The National Sample Survey Organization collects data on the characteristics of Labour Force, (Employed & Unemployed) through various rounds of the NSSO. Since 1972-73 the survey on Employment- Unemployment has become a part of the quinquennial programmer of NSSO surveys. The persons surveyed are classified into various activity categories on the basis of activities pursued during certain specified reference periods as Usual Status, Current Weekly Status and Current Daily Status. These are defined as under:


a) Usual Status:

A person is considered working or employed if the person was engaged for a relatively longer period in any one or more work related (economic) activities during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey.

b) Current Weekly Status:

A person is considered working or employed if the person was engaged for atleast one hour on any one day on any work related (economic) activity during the reference period of seven days preceding the date of survey.

c) Current Daily Status:

A person is considered working for the entire day if he had worked four hours or more on any day of the reference week preceding the date of survey.

6. The NSSO survey results indicate a significant shift in occupational structure in favour of the Tertiary Sector between 1987- 88 and 1992, as indicated below:

Statement 5.4
Category-wise workers in various rounds of NSSO

(Fig. in lakhs)

Sector Number of Workers
32nd round
1977-78
38th round 1983 43rd round
1987-88
48th round
1992
Primary 0.61 0.91 0.73 0.92

(3.59) (4.30) (2.67) (2.82)
Secondary 5.32
(31.29)
7.30
(34.47)
9.48
(34.62)
9.71
(29.78)
Tertiary 11.07
(65.12)
12.97
(61.23)
17.17
(62.71)
21.98
(67.40)
Total 17.00
(100)
21.18
(100)
27.38
(100)
32.61
(100)


EMPLOYMENT IN THE ORGANIZED SECTOR IN DELHI


7. In Delhi, the period 1994-97 shows a downward trend in total public sector employment (-1.74%) but an increase of 1.83% in the private sector. Overall, employment in the public and private sectors together has fallen by -0.82%.

Statement 5.5
Employment in Government and Quasi Government

(Fig.in lakhs)


1994 1995 1996 1997 Growth Rate
1994-97
(A) Public Sector




1. Central Govt. 2.13 2.15 2.14 2.10 -1.41%
2. Govt. of Delhi 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.12 1.82%
3. Quasi Govt.
(Central+State)
2.12 2.10 2.08 2.05 -3.30%
4. Local Bodies 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.94 -3.09%
TOTAL 6.32 6.31 6.28 6.21 -1.74%
(B) Private Sector 2.18 2.23 2.25 2.22 1.83%
Grand Total(A+B) 8.50 8.54 8.53 8.43 -0.82%

Source: Directorate of Employment, Govt. of NCT of Delhi.


UNEMPLOYMENT


8.

On June 30, 1998, 11.08 lakh persons were registered on the Live Register of Employment Exchanges in Delhi, out of which 8.47 lakh (76.44%) had a diploma, a matriculation, degree or higher educational qualification and the remaining 2.61 lakh (23.56%) were below this educational level.

Table 5.4 shows the number of persons registered with employment exchanges according to their educational qualifications.

9. Several rounds of NSSO surveys show that the labour force, which consists of both employed and unemployed persons increased from 19.08 lakh in 1977-78 to 34.57 lakh in 1992. At the same time, the number of unemployed persons in Delhi decreased from 2.08 lakh in 1977-78 to 1.96 lakh in 1992. The proportion of unemployed persons to the total labour force declined significantly from 10.90% to 5.67% during this period. Table 5.3 gives further details on employment during this period.


Table 5.1

State wise population and workers (1981 and 1991 census)

(Population in lacs)

Name of the State Total population Total workers % of workers in total population % increase
in workforce over 1981

1981 1991 1981 1991 1981 1991
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1. Andhra Pradesh 535.50 665.08 245.06 299.64 45.76 45.05 22.27
2. Arunachal Pradesh 6.32 8.65 3.32 4.00 52.53 46.24 20.48
3. Assam 198.97 224.14 N.A. 80.89 N.A. 36.09 N.A.
4. Bihar 699.15 863.74 226.17 277.77 32.35 32.16 22.81
5. Goa 10.08 11.70 3.82 4.13 37.90 35.30 8.12
6. Gujrat 340.86 413.10 127.02 166.21 37.26 40.23 30.85
7. Haryana 129.23 164.64 40.88 51.03 31.63 30.99 24.82
8. Himachal Pradesh 42.81 51.71 18.14 22.14 42.37 42.81 22.05
9. Jammu & Kashmir 59.87 N.A. 26.50 N.A. 44.26 N.A. N.A.
10. Karnataka 371.36 449.77 149.44 188.87 40.24 41.99 26.38
11. Kerala 254.53 290.99 77.73 91.46 30.53 31.43 17.66
12. Madhya Pradesh 521.78 661.81 223.97 283.40 42.92 42.82 26.53
13. Maharashtra 627.84 789.37 267.18 339.10 42.55 42.96 26.92
14. Manipur 14.21 18.37 6.14 7.75 43.20 42.19 26.22
15. Meghalaya 13.36 17.75 6.13 7.57 45.88 42.65 23.49
16. Mizoram 4.94 6.90 2.24 3.37 45.34 48.84 50.45
17. Nagaland 7.75 12.10 3.74 5.16 48.26 42.64 37.97
18. Orissa 263.70 316.60 100.23 118.83 38.01 37.53 18.56
19. Punjab 167.89 202.82 52.88 62.62 31.50 30.87 18.42
20. Rajasthan 342.62 440.06 125.43 171.04 36.61 38.87 36.36
21. Sikkim 3.16 4.06 1.52 1.69 48.10 41.63 11.18
22. Tamil Nadu 484.08 558.59 201.98 241.94 41.72 43.31 19.78
23. Tripura 20.53 27.57 6.63 8.59 32.29 31.16 29.56
24. Uttar Pradesh 1108.62 1391.12 340.51 447.99 30.72 32.20 31.56
25. West Bengal 545.81 680.78 164.64 219.15 30.16 32.19 33.10
Union Territories
1. Andman & Nicobar 1.89 2.81 0.70 0.99 37.03 35.23 41.43
2. Chandigarh 4.52 6.42 1.58 2.24 34.96 34.89 41.77
3. Dadar & Nagar Haveli 1.04 1.38 0.50 0.74 48.08 53.62 48.00
4. Daman & Diu 0.79 1.02 N.A. 0.38 N.A. 37.25 N.A.
5. Delhi 62.20 94.21 20.02 29.80 32.19 31.63 48.85
6. Lakshdweep 0.40 0.52 0.10 0.14 25.00 26.92 40.00
7. Pondicherry 6.04 8.08 1.84 2.67 30.46 33.04 45.11
All India 6851.85 8385.86 2446.04 3141.31 35.70 37.46 28.42

Source: 1981 and 1991Census, Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.


Table 5.2

Classification of workers in Delhi(1981 and 1991 census)

(Figure in Nos.)

Category 1981 1991 %increase over 1981
1 2 3 4
1. Cultivators 34841
(1.75)
33296
(1.12)
(-) 4.43
2. Agricultural labourers 16131
(0.81)
25195
(0.85)
56.19
3. Live Stock, Forestry, Fishing, Plantation,Orchards &
Allied Activities
16414
(0.83)
19024
(0.64)
15.90
4. Mining & Quarrying 8345
(0.42)
7042
(0.23)
(-)15.61
5. Manufacturing,Processing,
Servicing & Repair Total
568910
(28.64)
730951
(24.63)
28.48
A. Household Industries 33503
(1.69)
41788
(1.41)
24.73
B. Other than Household Industries 535407
(26.95)
689163
(23.22)
28.72
6. Construction 123704
(6.23)
231571
(7.80)
87.20
7. Trade & Commerce 420325
(21.16)
709614
(23.91)
68.82
8. Transport, Storage & Communication 178820
(9.00)
246490
(8.30)
37.84
9. Other Services 618909
(31.16)
965194
(32.52)
55.95
A. Total main workers 1986399
(31.93)
2968377
(31.51)
49.44
B. Marginal Workers 15793
(0.25)
12084
(0.13)
(-)23.49
C. Total Workers 2002192
(32.19)
2980461
(31.64)
48.86
D. Non Workers 4218214
(67.81)
6440183
(68.36)
52.68
E. Total Population 6220406 9420644 51.45
Source: 1981 and 1991Census, Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.


Table 5.3

Distribution of persons on the basis of 32nd round, 38th round(State Sample),
43rd round (Central Sample) & 48th round (State Sample)

Particulars Persons in lacs according to N.S.S.

32nd round
(July, 77- June, 78)
38th round
(Jan.-Dec. 1983)
43rd round
(July, 87- June, 88)
48th round
(Jan.-Dec.1992)
1 2 3 4 5
1. Employed 17.00
(31.42)
21.18
(30.97)
27.38
(33.45)
32.61
(33.03)
2. Unemployed 2.08
(3.85)
0.94
(1.37)
1.39
(1.70)
1.96
(1.98)
3. Labour Force(1+2) 19.08
(35.27)
22.12
(32.34)
28.77
(35.15)
34.57
(35.01)
4. Not in Labour Force 28.69
(53.03)
37.61
(55.00)
41.71
(50.95)
53.32
(54.03)
5. Working age Population
(3+4) (5 Yrs. & above)
47.77
(88.30)
59.73
(87.34)
70.48
(86.10)
87.89
(89.04)
6. Non-Working age
population(0-4 age)
6.33
(11.70)
8.66
(12.66)
11.38
(13.90)
10.82
(10.96)
7. Population 54.10
(100.00)
68.39
(100.00)
81.86
(100.00)
98.71
(100.00)
8. Percentage of unemployed person to labour force 10.90 4.25 4.83 5.67

Note : Figures in parenthesis show percentage to total.
Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Govt of NCT of Delhi.


Table 5.4

LIVE REGISTER POSITION IN DELHI

Year
Below Matric Matri- culates & Under- Graduates Graduates & Post Graduates Other Diploma holders Total Applicants Growth rate Annual Overall %increase

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1. 1990 211920 399522 215166 16717 843325 -
2. 1991 226267 426948 218666 19005 890886 5.64
3. 1992 238243 429027 221568 18154 906992 1.81
4. 1993 232306 432871 223382 19476 908035 0.11
5. 1994 227948 482905 239024 20237 970114 6.84
6. 1995 243905 522291 245919 21705 1033820 6.57 31.42*
7. 1996 255457 545221 258537 22085 1081300 4.59
8. 1997 251514 562633 261433 21873 1097453 1.49
9. 1998
(upto 30th June)
261272 556238 2 68944 21885 1108339 0.99

Note: *Overall increase in respect of Registered Unemployed Persons during 1990 to 1998 is 31.42% .
Source: Directorate of Employment, Govt. of NCT of Delhi.


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